Dismissed, disrespected, and hunted like witches,
midwives are finally being recognized-but misunderstandings and
By Marsden Wagner, Born in the USA
Utne Reader March / April 2007 Issue
Because the midwives feared God, they did not do as commanded by the
A midwife is lectured at by committees, scolded by matrons, sworn at
by surgeons, bullied by surgical dressers, talked flippantly to if
middle aged and good humored, seduced if young.
-London Times, 1857
After working as a practicing physician for several years, I became
a perinatologist and perinatal scientist, as well as a full-time
faculty member at the Schools of Medicine and Public Health at UCLA.
Then I became a director of maternal and child health for the
California state health department. In that capacity, I learned that
in the rural town of Madera, California, doctors had decided that
they no longer wanted to attend births in the Madera County
Hospital. They complained that it took too much of their time and
didn't pay enough. So in 1968 the county recruited two midwives to
fill the gap. After two years, the rate of babies dying around the
time of birth in the hospital was cut in half. Alarmed that their
style of maternity care was being made to look bad, the doctors in
town agreed that they would once again attend births in the hospital
if the two midwives were fired. The hospital fired the midwives, the
doctors returned, and soon the rate of babies dying around birth
rose to its earlier higher levels.
This natural experiment comparing the safety of doctors and midwives
left me confused and full of questions, because, in spite of my
years of experience as a physician, I had no real knowledge of
midwifery. What are these midwives? How are they trained? Could it
be that, as seen in Madera County, they are generally safer birth
attendants than doctors? Through no fault of their own, Americans,
including obstetricians, have little understanding of midwifery. In
the early years of the 20th century, a witch hunt against midwives
in the United States and Canada eliminated midwifery as a legitimate
health profession. The profession has gained ground in the past two
decades, but most people today have no personal experience with
midwives and have been exposed to considerable misinformation about
From California I left for Europe, where I joined the staff of the
World Health Organization. There I was exposed to the essential role
midwives play in maternity care in other highly industrialized
countries and in developing countries.
Throughout history, there have always been women in the community to
whom other women can turn for support with concerns-not just about
reproductive health care but also issues such as spousal abuse. The
word midwife is early English for "with woman." The French term for
midwife, sage femme (wise woman), goes back thousands of years, as
do the words in Danish, jordmor (earth mother), and in Icelandic,
ljosmodir (mother of light).
In the fifth century B.C. Hippocrates formalized a midwifery
training program in Greece. Phaenarete, the mother of Socrates, was
a midwife. In the Bible, the Book of Exodus recognized the strength
and independence of midwives who defied the pharaoh's command that
they kill all sons born to Hebrew women. The first law to regulate
midwifery in Europe was passed in Germany in 1452 and required that
a midwife attend all births. Since then, every little girl in Europe
has grown up with the understanding that if she has a baby, a
midwife will assist her.
When Europeans migrated to the New World, midwives were among them.
Midwives were a valued part of the developing health care system in
colonial times, and by the mid-1880s they were teaching medical
students in at least one university.
As the number of physicians increased in the United States, medical
doctors attempted to monopolize health care through state medical
practice acts that defined health care parameters, including who can
practice. By the end of the 19th century, it was common for midwives
to be accused of witchcraft and tried in court, and midwifery
practice began to disappear. The case of Hanna Porn was one of the
most famous and had far-reaching consequences. In Gardner,
Massachusetts, in 1909, a judge sentenced Porn to three months in
prison. Her crime? She was a practicing midwife. Fewer than half as
many of the babies whose births she attended died as babies whose
births were attended by local physicians. But the Massachusetts
Supreme Judicial Court used her case to rule that midwifery was
illegal in Massachusetts, based on the testimony of physicians who
said that midwives were incompetent. Other states followed suit and
made midwifery illegal, and it remained illegal in nearly all states
for more than 50 years, until nurse-midwifery began to be legalized.
Despite this attempt to dismantle the profession in the United
States and Canada, midwifery continued to thrive in Europe and other
parts of the world. And while the profession was severely hampered
in the United States for decades, it was not stamped out. Throughout
history, every attempt at ending the practice has failed. It seems
that there will always be women who want to be midwives and women
who want midwives to attend them when they give birth.
When officially sanctioned midwifery was attacked in the United
States, midwives went underground. Women who became known as "granny
midwives" (because they tended to be older) continued to practice,
especially in poor communities. In the 1920s Mary Breckinridge, a
public health nurse and midwife, formed the Frontier Nursing Service
to provide maternity care to families in rural areas of Appalachia.
Some of the staff members formed an organization that later became
the American Association of Nurse-Midwives, as well as the Frontier
School of Midwifery and Family Nursing, which trained hundreds of
women in what became a new profession in America, nurse-midwifery.
The number of nurse-midwives grew, and by 1977 the profession was
licensed in every state. After nursing school, a nurse can elect to
go on to midwifery school for about two years and become a
nurse-midwife. This is not the same as becoming a labor and delivery
nurse, a nursing specialization that has no training requirement and
usually involves about six weeks of on-the-job training.
Women can also train as "direct-entry" midwives, going directly to
midwifery school without training first in nursing. Direct-entry
midwives have grown steadily in numbers and recognition. In 2006
direct-entry midwifery was legal in 24 states, "alegal" (allowed
without legal interference) in 17 states, and explicitly illegal in
only nine states. In the past decade, more and more states have been
legalizing direct-entry midwifery. The U.S. government recognizes
the training for both nurse-midwives and direct-entry midwives and
has authorized the Midwifery Education Accreditation Council to
accredit midwifery schools and programs.
Despite the current resurgence of midwifery in the United States,
the fact that midwives were harshly persecuted for more than a
century has left the profession with a legacy of public reticence
and confusion that must be overcome. Many myths surround midwives,
myths that are often reinforced by obstetricians who view them as
competition. One is that midwives are not trained but are
"hippy-dippy" lay women who attend only home births. Another is that
midwives are religious zealots or witches who use magical potions.
That nurse-midwives attend births only in hospitals is a common
misconception, as is the idea that a midwife is a second-class
doctor for women who can't afford a real obstetrician. None of these
ideas is remotely true. Science has proven that for attending
low-risk births (that is, births without complications), midwives
are not second-class obstetricians, but rather obstetricians are
Generally speaking, a fundamental difference between midwifery care
and physician care at birth has to do with control. Childbirth is a
complicated physiological process regulated by the woman's nervous
system. Childbirth is not under the conscious control of the woman
giving birth, but rather is directed by hormones and the
parasympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system. Anything
that causes fear or alarm shuts down the parasympathetic system and
fires up the sympathetic nervous system (adrenaline). Any
intervention that increases a laboring woman's fear or anxiety will
interfere with, slow down, or even stop the birth processes. A wise
birth assistant, be it midwife, nurse, or doctor, knows how to
facilitate these autonomic responses and not interfere with them.
The key elements in the midwifery model of birth are normality,
facilitation of natural processes (with minimal intervention), and
the empowerment of the birthing woman.
Taking on the role of facilitator, midwives typically will reassure,
calm, and encourage birthing women. Obstetricians, on the other
hand, typically try to get the birth under their own control by
overriding the natural processes with drugs and medical procedures
and giving orders. The medical model and the midwifery model are
essentially different ways of looking at women and birth. Doctors
"deliver" babies and believe that having a baby is something that
happens to a woman. Midwives assist at birth and believe that giving
birth is something that a woman does.
Midwives tend to believe that a woman giving birth needs to be the
one making decisions about her birth experience. The woman giving
birth needs to believe in her own body and feel responsible for her
body, while at the same time letting go of the need to control what
is happening, since she cannot.
Another fundamental difference between midwives and doctors is how
they view pregnancy and birth. Midwives understand that pregnancy is
not an illness. They typically call the women in their care
"clients," not "patients," since they are not sick and are not
getting medical treatment. Though midwives know what can go wrong
during pregnancy and birth and know how to identify problems early
and to cooperate with doctors in managing complications, their focus
is on birth as a life-enhancing experience. Although they believe it
is essential to have medical assistance available when it is needed,
they are trained to go beyond medical care and empower women to
achieve their goals for themselves and their babies. Midwives trust
in women's bodies and their capacity to give birth successfully with
little or no intervention in most cases.
Obstetricians, on the other hand, tend to focus on what can go wrong
during pregnancy and birth. All doctors have been trained to look
for trouble (diagnose a problem) and decide what to do about it
(decide on a treatment), and that is what comes naturally to
obstetricians. In prenatal care they take the same approach,
focusing on what can go wrong.
Another important difference between midwife-attended low-risk birth
and obstetrician-attended low-risk birth is the quality of the
experience for the woman. Many surveys have shown that women who
have midwives as their attendants have far higher levels of
satisfaction with their birth experience than women who have
obstetricians attending their births. This is not hard to
understand. Midwives give great attention to building close
relationships with their clients and their clients' families.
Generally speaking, midwives are direct, open, and honest in their
dealings with clients and take an egalitarian, intimate,
woman-to-woman approach. Midwives do not guarantee a good outcome,
and their honesty about their role and its limitations contributes
to the level of satisfaction women feel with their services. On the
other hand, in a doctor-patient relationship, there is no
egalitarian tradition. Rather, the doctor's superior knowledge and
status are for the most part unquestioned and there is a belief (or
hope) that the doctor can perform miracles.
Midwives, like doctors, are human. They have bad days and they make
mistakes. Science now tells us, however, that overall, midwives are
safer than doctors for low-risk births. If a woman is among the 80
to 90 percent of all women who have normal pregnancies, the safest
attendant for her hospital birth is not a doctor but a midwife.
In the past two decades we've seen a renaissance of midwifery in the
United States. Each year, the number or births attended by midwives
The more the practice of midwifery grows and succeeds, the more
threatening midwives are to the obstetric monopoly, so, predictably,
there has been an obstetric backlash. Now, a hundred years after
Hanna Porn was persecuted, we have another American witch hunt
against midwives. In many states, doctors are reporting midwives to
various authorities as dangerous.
In many cases, these attacks are simply attempts by doctors to
eliminate the competition. Cases against midwives are, with very
rare exceptions, not initiated by the families the midwives serve,
as is typical of litigation against obstetricians. Instead, they are
initiated by physicians. In the past several years in many states,
including Illinois, Utah, California, Vermont, Virginia, Nevada,
Oregon, Indiana, and Ohio, police have arrested direct-entry
midwives for practicing nursing or medicine without a license.
Maternity care in the United States is changing, and one of the most
important changes still in progress involves who will catch the 3.5
million babies a year whose mothers have had normal pregnancies.
That is, who will be the primary birth attendant for low-risk
births? In the past decade, the percentage of births attended by
midwives has gone from 5 percent to 10 percent, and there are a few
places where it is closer to 25 percent. HMOs are hiring more and
more midwives. Kaiser Permanente, one of the largest HMOs in the
country, has many midwives on its staff. There are several reasons
for the growth of midwifery in the United States, and a big one is
Midwifery is far cheaper than obstetrics for two reasons. On
average, obstetricians take home a net income in the neighborhood of
$200,000 a year, whereas midwives earn about one-quarter of that.
Equally important, the cost of the obstetric interventions, such as
induction and C-section, performed unnecessarily can easily be cut
in half by having midwives, rather than obstetricians, assist at
normal births. Health care in the United States is very much driven
by the bottom line, and slowly but surely the insurance companies,
managed health care organizations, HMOs, and even state and federal
government agencies are realizing that the obstetric monopoly is
wasting enormous amounts of money. The day that truth fully sinks in
will be the day the obstetric monopoly is on its way out.
As midwifery becomes better established in the United States, it
becomes more difficult for the obstetric establishment to perpetuate
the myth that midwives are not as safe as doctors. Pushing the
"safety" issue has backfired as a way for obstetricians to protect
their territory. As more state legislatures look carefully at the
data and realize that they have been denying families a safe
maternity care option, momentum will grow and laws that support and
protect midwives will spread to other states.
Another reason midwifery is going to grow: Americans believe in a
free market economy with open competition. Obstetricians and
midwives both offer primary maternity care.
Finally, midwifery will continue to grow as more women come to
appreciate that maternity care is not primarily a health issue but a
women's issue. Midwifery plays an important role in strengthening
women's control over their own bodies and reproductive systems.
Excerpted from Born in the USA: How a Broken Maternity System Must
Be Fixed to Put Women and Children First (University of California,